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COP15, a historic agreement for biodiversity


The COP 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity, held in Montreal from 7 to 19 December 2022, under the presidency of China, concluded with the adoption of a "Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework".

Adopted by more than 195 States, this agreement, described as "historic", aims to guide global action in favour of nature until 2030 according to 4 main objectives and 23 action targets. A trajectory for international action that finally seems to echo OR match OR respond to the urgency of combating biodiversity loss and restoring ecosystems while protecting the rights of indigenous peoples, as highlighted in each of the goals and targets of the text.


The agreement provides in particular for :

  • the effective conservation and management of at least 30% of the world's land, inland waters, coastal and ocean areas and the restoration of 30% of degraded terrestrial and marine ecosystems by 2030.
  • the reduction of the overall risk from pesticides by half.
  • the phasing out or reforming of subsidies that harm biodiversity, while strengthening positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
  • Increased funding for the protection of nature (at least 200 billion dollars per year from public and private sources should be mobilised for the financing of biodiversity).
  • The establishment of a multilateral benefit-sharing mechanism to reward countries from which genetic resources are extracted.


The issue of financing was the most discussed and negotiated, with the emphasis on ensuring that adequate resources are available to all parties, especially the least developed countries and small island developing states. The discussions culminated on the last day of the COP in the decision to establish a special trust fund, the Global Biodiversity Framework Fund, under the Global Environment Facility, to support the implementation of the framework and to ensure an adequate, predictable and timely flow of funds.


While the text struggles to include quantifiable targets, planning, monitoring and review mechanisms have been adopted to strengthen and accelerate progress and to accurately measure the success of the implementation of the "Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework".

The next global assessment is due in 4 years. And the stakes are high at a time when the planet is experiencing the most dangerous decline in biodiversity in its history: a million plant and animal species are now threatened with extinction, most of them within a few decades, because of human activity.